What is fascism? The name originated in Italy. Were all the forms of counter-revolutionary dictatorship fascist or not (That is to say, prior to the advent of fascism in Italy)?
The former dictatorship in Spain of Primo de Rivera, 1923-30, is called a fascist dictatorship by the Comintern. Is this correct or not? We believe that it is incorrect.
The fascist movement in Italy was a spontaneous movement of large masses, with new leaders from the rank and file. It is a plebian movement in origin, directed and financed by big capitalist powers. It issued forth from the petty bourgeoisie, the slum proletariat, and even to a certain extent from the proletarian masses; Mussolini, a former socialist, is a “self-made” man arising from this movement.
Primo de Rivera was an aristocrat. He occupied a high military and bureaucratic post and was chief governor of Catalonia. he accomplished his overthrow with the aid of state and military forces. The dictatorships of Spain and Italy are two totally different forms of dictatorship. It is necessary to distinguish between them. Mussolini had difficulty in reconciling many old military institutions with the fascist militia. This problem did not exist for Primo de Rivera.
The movement in Germany is analogous mostly to the Italian. It is a mass movement, with its leaders employing a great deal of socialist demagogy. This is necessary for the creation of the mass movement.
The genuine basis (for fascism) is the petty bourgeoisie. In italy, it has a very large base — the petty bourgeoisie of the towns and cities, and the peasantry. In Germany, likewise, there is a large base for fascism….
It may be said, and this is true to a certain extent, that the new middle class, the functionaries of the state, the private administrators, etc., can constitute such a base. But this is a new question that must be analyzed….
In order to be capable of foreseeing anything with regard to fascism, it is necessary to have a definition of that idea. What is fascism? What are its base, its form, and its characteristics? How will its development take place? It is necessary to proceed in a scientific and Marxian manner.
A priest moved to a new, remote parish and was feeling lonely. To keep him company, he went to the pet store to buy a parrot. Unfortunately, parrots are quite expensive, and he couldn’t afford one.
Feeling sorry for him, the store owner told him, “Well, I do have this one parrot, but it was owned by a sailor and its language is…well..colorful. But I’ll let you have him for $25.”
The priest smiles, “I think I can handle that. He just needs a little discipline.” He takes the bird and heads for home.
The first night, as he is preparing his sermon for the next day, the parrot pipes up, “Boring motherfucker! Boring motherfucker!”
The priest is horrified…but is prepared. He calmly stand up, gets the parrot, and places it in the freezer. He waits 60 seconds and removes it. “Any questions?”, He asks. The parrot shakes its head and the priest replaces the bird on its perch.
The next night, one of the nuns comes by his room with a delivery. Spying her in the doorway, the parrot whistles, “Nice ass, sweetie! Nice ass, sweetie!” Shocked, the nun bolts from the doorway.
The priest shouts an apology after her, and with a resigned sigh puts the parrot back in the freezer. After two minutes, he removes it and again asks, “Any questions?” The parrot shakes its head, shivering, and is replaced on his perch.
The next night, the priest is visited by one of the more vocal parishioners, who spends a good hour complaining about anything and everything until interrupted by the parrot with a high pitched cry of, “Whiny prick! Whiny prick!”
Already agitated by the complaints, the priest jumps up, stuffs the bird in the freezer and escorts the parishioner out, profusely apologizing for his bird….several minutes pass before he opens the freezer again. Exasperated, he again asks, “Any questions?”
Shivering, beak chattering, the bird nods and speaks…”Yeah…just one…what the FUCK did the turkey do?”